Analyse et réception des sons au cinéma (Champs visuels) (French Edition)

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Access My Saved Searches. Are you sure that you want to override it? Confirm Cancel. You cannot save this search because you have reached the maximum number of saved searches allowed. Please delete or override an existing search query. You must specify a search query name. No jobs correspond to the specified criteria. Paul and Birt Acres both independently developed their own systems for projecting a moving image on to a screen. Acres presented his in January , and Paul unveiled his more influential Theatrograph shortly after on 20 February, on exactly the same day the Lumieres' films would first be projected in London.

After some demonstrations before scientific groups, he was asked to supply a projector and staff to the Alhambra Music Hall in Leicester Square , and he presented his first theatrical programme on 25 March His device was the prototype for the modern film projector and was sold across Europe. By , it had dawned on the Edison company that more money could be made by showing motion picture films with a projector to a large audience than exhibiting them in peep-show machines.

Birt Acres designed the first camera for amateur use in He called it the 'Birtac Home Cinema', and it used a Its purpose, in his words, was 'to place animated photography in the reach of everyone'. By the late s, the first motion picture companies were established in the US, France, Britain and elsewhere. The most successful motion picture company in the United States, with the largest production until , was the American Mutoscope company. This was initially set up to exploit peep-show type films using designs made by W. Dickson after he left the Edison company in The image sheets stood out from the periphery of a rotating drum, and flipped into view in succession.

Besides American Mutoscope, there were also numerous smaller producers in the United States, and some of them established a long-term presence in the new century. American Vitagraph , one of these minor producers, built studios in Brooklyn, and expanded its operations in There were nearly a thousand of these films made up to , nearly all of them actualities. The special popularity of his longer films, which were several minutes long from onwards while most other films were still only a minute long , led other makers to start producing longer films.

In the United Kingdom, Birt Acres was one of the first to produce films as well as being the first travelling newsreel reporter. Charles Urban became managing director of the Warwick Trading Company in , where he specialised in actuality film, including newsfilm of the Anglo-Boer War. In July he formed his own company, the Charles Urban Trading Company , moving to London 's Wardour Street in , the first film business to be located in what became the home of the British film industry. Other early pioneers include James Williamson , G.

Smith and Cecil Hepworth , who in , began turning out films a year, with his company becoming the largest on the British scene. The Babelsberg Studio near Berlin in Germany was the first large-scale film studio in the world, founded , and the forerunner to Hollywood with its several establishments of large studios in the early 20th century. Initially, commercial screenings of motion-pictures for the public were put on in existing theatres and music halls as a novelty, but the main methods of exhibition quickly became either as an item on the programmes of variety theatres, or by traveling showmen in tent theatres, which they took around the fairs in country towns.

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It became the practice for the producing companies to sell prints outright to the exhibitors, at so much per foot, regardless of the subject. Typical prices initially were 15 cents a foot in the United States, and one shilling a foot in Britain. Hand-coloured films, which were being produced of the most popular subjects before , cost 2 to 3 times as much per foot.

There were a few producers, such as the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, who did not sell their films, but exploited them solely with their own exhibition units. The first public motion-picture film presentation in the world was done by Max and Emil Skladanowsky at the Berlin Wintergarten theatre , who projected with their apparatus "Bioscop", a flickerfree duplex construction, from November 1 through 31, The first theatres dedicated to motion-pictures were established at the turn of the century, soon becoming known as cinemas. The Vitascope Hall in New Orleans was opened in as one of the first such establishments.

It showed two exhibitions, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Another early establishment was the Islington Palace , originally built in as part of the Royal Agricultural Hall complex. The concert hall was converted into a full-time cinema in , a year after it showed its first film. The Nickelodeon was the first successful permanent theatre showing only films, and opened in Pittsburgh in By then there were enough films several minutes long available to fill a programme running for at least half an hour, and which could be changed weekly when the local audience became bored with it.

Other exhibitors quickly followed suit, and within a couple of years there were thousands of these "nickelodeons" in operation worldwide. The first person to demonstrate a natural-color motion picture system was British inventor Edward Raymond Turner , who applied for his patent in , received it in , and was able to show promising but very mechanically defective results in Turner's camera used a rotating disk of three color filters to photograph color separations on one roll of black-and-white film.

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A red, green or blue-filtered image was recorded on each successive frame of film. The finished film print was projected, three frames at a time, through the corresponding color filters. When Turner died in , his financial backer at that time, pioneering film producer Charles Urban , passed on the development of the process to George Albert Smith , who by had developed a simplified version that he later named Kinemacolor. The Kinemacolor camera had red and green filters in the apertures of its rotating shutter, so that alternating red-filtered and green-filtered views of the subject were recorded on consecutive frames of the panchromatic black-and-white film.

The Kinemacolor projector did the same thing in reverse, projecting the frames of the black-and-white print alternately through the red and green filters in its rotating shutter. Both devices were operated at twice the usual frame rate to reduce the color flicker technically known as "color bombardment" produced by non-simultaneous projection of the two color components, a defect which some viewers barely noticed but which others found obtrusive and headache-inducing.

A related defect was the most obvious shortcoming of this process: because the two components had not been photographed at the same time, as pairs of frames, rapidly moving subjects did not adequately match up from one frame to the next when projected on the screen, resulting in color "fringes" or in extreme cases vividly colored "ghosts". A white dog wagging its tail in front of a dark background could appear to have several tails, variously red, green and white. The first motion picture exhibited in Kinemacolor was an eight-minute short titled A Visit to the Seaside , which was trade-shown in September The general public first saw Kinemacolor in a program of 21 short films shown on 26 February at the Palace Theatre in London.

Kinemacolor released the first drama filmed in the process, Checkmated , in , and the first feature-length documentary , With Our King and Queen Through India , in Four dramatic short films were made in Kinemacolor in the US in —, [49] and one in Japan in However, the company was not a success, partly due to the expense of installing the special Kinemacolor projectors. A variant method was promoted by William Friese-Greene. He called his additive color system "Biocolour". It differed from Kinemacolor only in that the need for a filter-equipped projector was eliminated by staining alternate frames of the film itself with red and green dyes.

An ordinary projector could therefore be used, if it would bear being cranked at a sufficient rate. Like Kinemacolor, Biocolour suffered from noticeable color flicker and from red and green fringing when the subject was in rapid motion. The projector had a corresponding triad of lenses. To reduce the strain imposed on the film as the mechanism in each device pulled it down three frames at a time, frame height was reduced from the usual four film perforations to three, resulting in a widescreen image format identical with the modern aspect ratio.

Chronochrome's color quality was impressive, as surviving specimens attest, [50] and because the three frames were exposed and projected simultaneously, Kinemacolor's color bombardment and color fringes around moving objects were avoided.

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However, because the camera's three lenses could not all photograph the scene from exactly the same viewpoint, subjects that were too near the camera would exhibit color fringes if the registration of the three projected images was optimized for the background of the scene, and vice versa.

A method of notching the prints to trigger automatic adjustment of the projection optics was invented, but expert supervision of the presentation was still a requisite. Light loss due to the color filters and the constrained dimensions of the projection lenses resulted in an image that was too dim for showing in a large auditorium unless a highly reflective metalized screen or rear-projection onto a translucent screen was used, and either solution created a "hot spot" that made the views from the side sections of the auditorium very unsatisfactory.

The films were seldom screened outside of Gaumont's own cinemas and the system soon fell into disuse. After experimenting from to with additive color systems that filmed and projected the two color components simultaneously, rather than in rapid alternation thereby eliminating Kinemacolor's color flicker and false color fringes around rapidly moving objects , the Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation developed a subtractive color print process. By skip-frame printing from the negative, two prints were made, on film stock with half the normal base thickness.

They were chemically toned i. No special projection equipment was needed. Perhaps the most ambitious all-Technicolor feature was The Black Pirate , starring and produced by Douglas Fairbanks. In , the system was refined by the adoption of dye imbibition , which allowed for the transferring of dyes from both color matrices into a single one-sided print, thus eliminating the complication of attaching two prints back to back and allowing multiple prints to be created from a single pair of matrices.

Technicolor's system was popular for a number of years, but it was an expensive process: shooting cost three times as much as black-and-white photography and printing costs were also much higher. By , color photography in general had nearly been abandoned by the major studios, but then Technicolor introduced a new process which recorded all three primary colors. Utilizing a dichroic beam splitter sandwiched between two degree prisms in the form of a cube, light from the lens was split into two paths to expose three black-and-white films two of them in bipack , one each to record the densities for red, green and blue.

The three negatives were printed to gelatin matrix films, which were processed with a selectively hardening developer, treated to remove the silver, and hot-washed to leave only a gelatin relief of the images. The matrix for each color was soaked in its complementary dye yellow, cyan, or magenta , then each in succession was brought into high-pressure contact with the receiver, which imbibed and held the dyes, thus reproducing a nearly complete spectrum of color, unlike previous two-color processes.

The first short live-action film was La Cucaracha , and the first all-color feature in "New Technicolor" was Becky Sharp The proliferation of television in the early s contributed to a heavy mid-century push for color within the film industry. In , only 12 percent of American films were made in color.

By , that number had risen to over 50 percent. The last stand of black-and-white films made by or released through the major Hollywood studios came in the mids, after which the use of color film for all productions was effectively mandatory and exceptions were only rarely and grudgingly made. Initially, there were technical difficulties in synchronizing images with sound.

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However, there was still significant interest in motion pictures for films to be produced without sound. The era from the s to the late s, is commonly referred to as the silent era of film. To enhance the viewers' experience, silent films were commonly accompanied by live musicians and sometimes sound effects and even commentary spoken by the showman or projectionist.

In most countries, intertitles came to be used to provide dialogue and narration for the film. Experimentation with sound film technology, both for recording and playback, was virtually constant throughout the silent era, but the twin problems of accurate synchronization and sufficient amplification had been difficult to overcome Eyman, In , Hollywood studio Warner Bros.

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During late , Warners released The Jazz Singer , which was mostly silent but contained what is generally regarded as the first synchronized dialogue and singing in a feature film. The trend convinced the largely reluctant industrialists that "talking pictures", or "talkies", were the future. A lot of attempts were made before the success of The Jazz Singer , that can be seen in the List of film sound systems.

Digital cinematography, the process of capturing film images using digital image sensors rather than through film stock, has largely replaced analog film technology.


As digital technology has improved in recent years, this practice has become dominant. Since the mid s most of the movies across the world are captured as well as distributed digitally. Many vendors have brought products to market, including traditional film camera vendors like Arri and Panavision , as well as new vendors like RED , Blackmagic , Silicon Imaging , Vision Research and companies which have traditionally focused on consumer and broadcast video equipment, like Sony , GoPro , and Panasonic.

Current digital film cameras with 4k output are approximately equal to 35mm film in their resolution and dynamic range capacity, however, digital film still has a slightly different look to analog film. Some filmmakers and photographers still prefer to use analogue film to achieve the desired results. Whereas traditional film reels had to be shipped to movie theaters , a digital movie can be distributed to cinemas in a number of ways: over the Internet or dedicated satellite links or by sending hard drives or optical discs such as Blu-ray discs. Digital movies are projected using a digital projector instead of a conventional film projector.

Digital cinema is distinct from high-definition television and is not dependent on using television or high-definition video standards, aspect ratios, or frame rates. As digital cinema technology improved in the early s, most of the theaters across the world converted to digital. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the history of motion-picture technology.

For the history of film as an artistic medium, see History of film. Main article: Precursors of film. Play media. Main article: Movie theater. Main article: Color motion picture film.

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Main article: Sound film. Main articles: Digital cinematography and Digital cinema. Renaissance Vision from Spectacles to Telescopes. London: Imperial College Press. European Society for the History of Photography. Retrieved 2 June