Tener una mente curiosa nos ayuda a ser mejores. Muy bueno el contenido. El narrador es muy bueno, pero para alguien que la verdad no le atrae mucho el arte. A parte de ayuda frecuente de sus alumnos en sus trabajos. Recomiendo el libro en un 7 sobre Su curiosidad nos recuerda que siempre hay algo que aprender. Your audiobook is waiting…. By: Walter Isaacson. Length: 19 hrs and 47 mins.
People who bought this also bought De animales a dioses [Sapiens. Steve Jobs. Please note: This audiobook is in Spanish. What members say Average Customer Ratings Overall. Amazon Reviews. Sort by:. Most Helpful Most Recent. Symbolically it is respected and feared. Their skin split along their back, allowing the snake to slide out, leaving the old skin behind and in the case of rattlesnakes even their rattles. This characteristic associated snakes with the idea of being vehicles of rebirth and transformation.
Three fundamental notions accompanied the Mesoamerican serpent: one, the serpent is water and thus a conductor of water; two, from his mouth a cavern opens; three, the serpent is heaven. This last concept survives in Mayan linguistics: the words snake and heaven are homophones, coatl and caan or chan , depending on the language. Warburg, in his famous lecture mentioned above, described the ritual of the serpent dance in New Mexico which aimed to ask the serpents to provoke the rain. In Xul Solar produced the series Sandanza , in which there appear approximations with the Mexican codices in relation to narratives, integrating images and texts about serpent dances, choreographies which imitated serpentine movements, or groups of dancers who used clothing and adornments with inferences to serpents and performances with ritual aims.
In addition to the inspiration in the theme of the dragon taken from the mystical and visual thought of Kandinsky, as well as the use of Mesoamerican iconography for his purposes, it can be supposed that in his time in Italy when the figure of the serpent began to enter his pictographic 'fauna,' Xul had entered into contact with other sources.
In his searches he may have come into contact with the literature on the myths and symbols of archaic culture. Among the ancient Etruscans, who had lived in the Italian peninsula before the Indo-European migration and the arrival of the Latins around B. The serpent appeared in a polyvalence of symbols and meanings.
Between the 'mystic serpent,' who represents the image of Jesus the healer and the 'serpent of sin,' cause of the downfall of Adam and Eve, there were a wide range of 'moral physiologies' from the political dominion exercised by Christian monarchs, to the secrets of Neo-platonic metaphysics. Through antonomasia, it represents various dimensions of life: damned since Genesis for engendering Pride the worst of all sins , it is also exalted and assimilated by Christianity as the best image of the divine concept of Eternity, the Incarnation of the Word, the resurrection of Christ and the mystery of the Holy Trinity.
Visually it appeared in distinct symbolic traditions: in classical mythology, in heraldry, medals, hieroglyphics, and emblems. According to Filipo Picinelli: three great teachings are revealed by serpents: the periodic change of skin with the help of cracks between the stones; the union of its face with the glue; the hiding of the head under the coiled body as a means of prevention.
There is no emblemist, it can be concluded from the reading of the book, who is not caught by some of their renowned qualities: renewal and sagacity skin , immortality and universe circle , prudence and cunning spiral. Serpents began to appear in Xul's watercolors, as he himself stated, when he was in Italy after the First World War, at the most acute moment of the feeling that European civilization was in ruins. They emerge from their lairs, or drag themselves through leaves, as in Troncos or Una Drola They climb into the heights, as in Reptil que sube Serpientes presents a strange figure, a hybrid of man, bird and serpent.
The eyes of the serpent and of the man meet and challenge each other. In Tres y sierpe , three women's faces contemplate with spectral eyes. They are restless faces which suggest expressions of astonishment, surprise, expectation, fear. The serpent drawn as a flat strip with its golden aura appears to bring the spectator to the terrestrial, uniting the ethereal feminine figures in the cosmic plane.
In various of these the human figures are composed of cylinders, the hands have long figures, and the eyes are large and pronounced.
In others, they are transparent bodies with visible organs, diluting the frontiers between inside and outside. While in others again there are juxtapositions of various characters, diluting the individual identities, or superimpositions of themes in the same picture. In this case this involves the condensation of connected, but different, aspects which through abstract and formal syntheses, allusively refer to the gods and the successions of ages, to cosmological myths, the celebration of ritual, emblems with divine powers and magical practices.
Symmetrically, a large arrow like a flame or phallus, stands itself up.
In Por Su Cruz Jura the fight between man and serpent appears once again: here the two figures are back to back, each one moving in such a way that leads us to think that they are moving apart. When the serpent does not assume the figure of the boat, it is a travelling companion following the boat, a protector of the crossing, as in yet another Chaco from In Despedida the traveler occupies a stylized boat and two serpents welcome their passage. In Mansilla the desire for return appears clearly. The image is suggestive: at the center is a man whose body is composed of the architectural plans of his father's house; the profiled face is schematized by a geometric form and open arms; two large rectangles compose the figure, in a mixture between the plans of a building and a drawing of a human figure.
The character stands over a serpent which acts as a platform for the man-house, while two birds fly overhead. In the center of a the image appears in a green rectangle the word patio , and around the house or man-house the words B. Aires , plano , mansilla , puerta and la casa , and number Together with the extreme creativity in the use of colors, lines and simple planes which suggest spaces with perspectives and depths, the presence of certain signs is significant in his visual language: flags, especially of Argentina, some only suggested by color, letters and numbers with enigmatic symbols, words in neocriollo , representations of pre-Colombian gods.
It can be seen that at this moment the artist was increasingly linked to the iconology of Mesoamerica and increasingly determined to return to a project of aesthetic renewal. In this way the references to pre-Colombian elements in his watercolors acquires full expression.
Tlaloc and Nana Watzin , taken in sequence, suggest to us the narrative of the birth of Quinto Sol the fifth sun and the Moon, with approximations to what appears in the Florentine codex, which demonstrates the central importance of the sun and the ritual of sacrifice for its birth. In the first picture, Tlaloc, the god of rain, stands erect integrating the planes of heaven and earth, unifying the two opposites which constitute the dual aspect of this divinity, whose dual relations appear linked to water and to fire.
In the mythological narrative the third age of the succession of ages of the world, the sun of water, placed under his protection, ends in a spectacular catastrophe which appears in the upper part of the picture, in a shower of fire in the form of thunder and lightning : heaven fell down, all the waters on earth overflowed and men were converted into fish, who appear in the lower part of the picture coming out of water. After this sequence in which the fourth age is represented by the presence of fish who appear in the lower part of the picture leaving the water , the fifth age occurs, the age of the Sun, which is associated with the goddess Nanahuatzin.
Here Nanahuatzin is over the flames and another person is kneeling beside him as if they were praying. In the terrestrial plane, over pointed firs, the inscription Xolotl , a god associated with the underworld, contrasts with a bird in the heavens with its wings opened. A strong luminosity achieved with yellow and orange bands, covers the space in all directions. The two scenes in the pictures induce an approximation with the cosmogonic narratives of the Nahua universe, which include a cyclical concept of time.
One of these was supposed to throw himself into the flames to transform himself through his sacrificial death into a new sun.
Nanahuatzin threw himself, transforming into the sun. However, the sun and moon remained immobile.
For them to follow their paths, the other gods decided to die. In the Albin codex Tlaloc appears intimately linked to the foundation of Mexico and the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan. His actions could be beneficial or malevolent. Particular powers were granted to the rain gods, of whom one was Tlaloc, in antiquity.
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Given what has been discussed in this article, the watercolor Drago can be considered Xul Solar's best representation of criollism. The scene gives the work a feeling of dynamism and velocity, a determination and the certainty of a mission to be fulfilled. The sun, the moon, the stars and a comet which crosses the heavens confer a mystical aura on the scene, which references pre-Colombian divinities. It can be hypothesized that Xul Solar subverted the place of the dragon. While, in Kandinsky, the horse ridden by St. George's sword the emissary carries a staff topped by a triangle, which for Kandinsky was the symbol of spiritual life; on the dragon's head are the symbols of three large religions: Christianity, Judaism and Islamism, which for Xul were sources of wisdom.
The Plumed Serpent was the performance of the miracle, magic, sorcerer and guardian of all the secrets of enchantment. However, in its mythology the Plumed Serpent confronted his evil twin, Tezcatlipoca.
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According to the Aztec belief, Tezcatlipoca infiltrated one of his servants who intoxicated the Plumed Serpent and his sister, making the two of them sleep together, breaking their vows of chastity. The Plumed Serpent, feeling guilty and in agony, abandoned his possessions on earth and began an epic flight: a pilgrimage to purify himself, which resulted in the proliferation of his image and his name through ancient Mexico, always heading east.
Dressed in a turquoise mask and a mantle of feathers, he had a raft made of serpents and sat in it as if it were a canoe and departed, sailing over the sea. After this the Plumed Serpent exploded in flames. The ashes of his heart rose and like a phoenix were transformed into the planet Venus.
The works of Homi Bhabha, Said, Barbero, Canclini and Stuart Hall, amongst others, deal with the question of post-colonialism, looking at the cultural potency of the colonized areas. Serge Gruzinski highlights co-invention in the creation of American culture, the exchanges and intermixing which is produced between metropoles and indigenous knowledge. The colonized digest the culture of the colonizer to better fuse it with native culture rather than simple assimilation or imitation. The colonizers were not passive.
The Cantares are neither Amerindian works nor European: they are intermixed. For Oswald Europe did not emerge immune from contact with the new world. It was the discovery of American man which inspired Europeans to create the utopian literary genre, since, after all, we were born as 'new men:' "Utopias are a consequence of the discovery of the New World and, above all, the discovery of new man, a different man found on the lands of America.
It was a Portuguese sailor who described for Thomas More the peoples and customs of a land not located in Europe. Bacon wrote New Atlantis based on an expedition to Peru. The letter, according to Oswald, was successfully publicized at the time in various languages, and the images of the new world it contained unchained an intellectual movement of grandeur. All of this opened "a horizon for European man, confined on a flat and immoveable earth between heaven and hell. The conclusion is that Europeans did not emerge immune from contact with the New World. As we have seen Mexican culture became an argument of Europeans to criticize their own world, although in the space of art and not science.
Pre-Colombian iconography became part of the visuality of European modernists. Nor was it only from the discourse or interpretation of Europeans, for whom the world was divided into Europeans and non-Europeans. Mexicanidad was built within Mexico by the muralists. Brought to Europe by Diego de Rivera, it influenced European artists.
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In Orientalism Said says that Orientalist thought domesticated a scientific knowledge capable of legitimating the authority of the West over the Orient: the latter, Said says, is an invention of the West. More subtly and subjectively, he adds, is what can be perceived in the literary works of poets and novelists who never travelled abroad: the fascination with the Orient which gave their works an imagination and aesthetic marked by the effects of orientalism. Xul Solar, as we have seen, believed that America, with its systems of myths and beliefs, was giving "the shaking world a great example of co-existence, fraternity, mutual respect, about all the countries with a Latin origin.
The reality of the abstract image: rethinking spirituality in abstraction. A history of visual culture. Kandinsky e o Cavaleiro. Alejandro Xul Solar. Buenos Aires: Ed. Buenos Aires: Corregidor, Primitivism in Modern Art. New York: Vintage Books, Porto Alegre: Ed. UFRGS, The myth of primitivism. Jean Charlot : artist and scholar.
Papeles de Trabajo. In: Xul Solar : visiones y revelaciones. Arte americana antiga.