These units employ mentor texts that students read as writers, learning how to see authors as mentors for their own writing. Finally, students write graduations speeches at the end of the year. Standards Student demonstrates command of key craft techniques. Students study the forces and physical interactions between objects and within systems of objects as well as the transfer of energy from one system to another.
From Dubs to Marbles: Reflections on Learning from Teachers and Students
Students explore the role of simple machines in the context of prosthetic limb design. They learn about the. Students also investigate how chemistry can better help us understand the impacts of climate change on our environment. The focus is for each girl to develop her skills. In addition, they are very well prepared for high-school level Math. We are offering a Pre-Geometry class for many of the eighth grade students who are ready transfer their understanding of algebra to the world of geometry.
The correspondence between numerical coordinates and geometric points allows methods from algebra to be applied to geometry and vice versa. The solution set of an equation becomes a geometric curve, making visualization a tool for doing and understanding algebra. Geometric shapes can be described by equations, making algebraic manipulation into a tool for geometric understanding, modeling, and proof.
This is accomplished by moving towards an immersion-style classroom. Class is predominantly conducted in Spanish; students are expected to use Spanish when communicating with the teacher and each other. Students continue to expand their vocabulary in thematic units and learn new grammatical structures in both the present and preterite tenses. Through a sociolinguistics unit, students challenge their definitions of language and literacy, explore the relationship between power and language, consider the ways language is used and taught in schools and communities, and reflect on their personal identities and experiences with language.
Assessments vary and include daily participation and instructional activities, unit quizzes and tests, and thematic projects. In eighth grade, the students focus on exploration of understanding social dynamics, sexuality, and growing up. This class is largely based on group discussion and relies upon critical thinking as the best tool for exploring. Students participate in a variety of physical education activities in order to provide them with a well-rounded experience. Each student takes three terms of Physical Education each year. Students perform techniques alone, in partner drills, and with targets.
Students are encouraged to explore and discuss body mechanics as they learn. The girls regularly engage in discussions regarding the tenets of courtesy, integrity, perseverance, self-control and indomitable spirit. These tests are not linked to technical proficiency, but rather are a celebration of the strengths gained by each individual.
Health and Fitness The LWGMS Health and Fitness class, taught by experienced fitness instructors Annie Barrett and Megan Bergerson, focus on the four components of fitness: cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility. Discussion around each component of fitness and instruction on specific exercises are incorporated throughout each class. Fitness assessments are conducted for each student at the beginning of the term and individual fitness goals are established. Dance class will consist of Holistic Stretches, improv, and group choreography.
We will use a variety of world music as well as explore many different styles of dance. Yoga and Body Image Yoga and Body Image, taught by Mary McGough, is a gentle class to develop a connection to the physical and energetic body while cultivating strength, balance, and relaxation. By focusing on yoga fundamentals, including the asana sequence and meditation, the girls will work to develop body awareness, learn basic postures, focus on proper alignment, and practice coordinating the breath and movements gracefully together.
Through literary and historical analysis and interpretation and memorization of the script and songs, students develop strong minds; by learning to perform with strong voices, students develop confidence; and finally, through learning to use physical movements and dance to express emotion and meaning, students develop strong bodies. The Performing Arts program also provides opportunities for students to practice teamwork and leadership skills.
As members of a cast and crew, the students must learn to work together and be responsible on both an individual level as well as for the entire group. In addition to performing as actors and musicians, students take on leadership roles in stage management, lighting, sound, set design, assisting the director, and choreographing musical numbers. The process of creating a show is filled with opportunities for social and emotional learning and the personal growth that results from meeting challenges and taking appropriate risks.
The progression of the program from sixth grade to eighth grade reflects the idea that as girls become more confident in their performance skills, the role size and responsibility increases. In the Fall and Winter all school musical productions, sixth graders generally have smaller roles and seventh graders have larger roles and leads; every sixth and seventh grader has a speaking role. Eighth graders work as the crew and perform as musicians and as members of the ensemble.
The eighth grade play reflects a culminating event for the drama program in that every girl has a larger role, takes more creative control, and has more responsibility in this production. Additionally, the Enrichment program is designed to give students opportunities to explore their individual interests and cultivate appropriate risk-taking. The Enrichment classes are generally project-based, and they therefore allow students to create a product to publish, perform, or display at the end of the term.
LWGMS values the arts, and many of the Enrichment classes incorporate the arts, both visual and performing. The Enrichment program gives students opportunities to work in groups, to work on project or performance based assignments, and to work on subject matter that relates to real-world experiences.
As with any class at LWGMS, diversity of perspectives and materials is incorporated into the design of the class. The content design of each course takes into consideration multiple and diverse perspectives on its subject. Students will have the opportunity to make many different puppets out of many different mediums. Materials explored will include plaster, cardboard, duct tape, and clay. Get ready to create some fantastic characters! Wood Shop This elective offering will allow students to explore the vast world of wood-working.
Students will learn to use some of the exciting tools we have available in the STEAM studio, and will be able to create multiple projects out of wood and other recycled materials. Fibers From papermaking to dyeing to weaving to macrame, this elective will explore a myriad of different 3D, hands on craft techniques. Get ready to tie some knots, make some poufs, and have a little fun at the same time. A potential field trip is in the works as well!
We will also study famous artists, art appreciation, and history as well as important techniques. We will use these different media to create works of art featuring portraiture and figure poses. We will read graphic novels that feature girl protagonists dealing with girl issues. In addition to reading graphic novels, you will create your own comics. You will draw single-panel comics, gag comics, a comic without pictures, and create feminist superheroes. Art Across Mediums: Collections and Recollections This class investigates a variety of art making genres such as paint, drawing, sculpture, and printmaking and uses these genres to explore a particular theme.
We will use these different media to create works of art featuring collections, memories, and imagination. Students will learn the history of jazz and blues and the ways they influence your favorite music today. Develop your own musical ideas through improvisation Have an instrument? Bring it! Love to sing? If you want to master the basics of music, learn how to tell a story through song, and explore the rich history of American artists and composers, this is elective is the one for you.
In building up to Festival of Lights, students will immerse themselves in reading and writing poetry, discovering new poets and experimenting with poetic devices. Ultimately, they will apply their methods and learning to create the introductory performance for Festival of Lights. The Drama Program at LWGMS is a three year curriculum that focuses on theatrical skills, ensemble building, script analysis, and artistic discipline.
In the Fall and Winter Terms, sixth and seventh graders perform in a large musical, while eighth graders serve as crew members and production team, who are r esponsible for set design and building, costume design and construction, stage management, lighting and sound design and tech. Vence ye back-killin' s The cry that revokes the accidental strike, if said before the call that legalizes the strike. Variation of back-kill, Eggleston in Century Magazine.
A marble game played between railroad tracks; the marbles are thrown against a rail so as to bounce back whence the name and hit other marbles lying on the ground; a term used in Wisconsin. Also see cross tracks. Also called English. An advanced player can control the amount of backspin deemed necessary by moving the shooter up higher on their thumb knuckle. Also see Cunny Thumb or Scrumpy Knuckles , shots that give topspin , a less desired spin, rarely used by advanced players.
In certain situations a player must return to the point from which he rolled or shot his marble, a term used around A marbles game and game board; the fore-runner of the pin-ball game; popular around the turn of the 20 th century;.
Setting the Tone for Reflection
BAIT : noun. See Ante. BAITS : noun. The marbles which a player puts in the game as his ante. BALDY : noun. A ball bearing used as a marble; the term used in London, England. Describes a number of white and black marbles popularly used for voting at board meeting, social clubs and professional society meetings. A white marble signifies yea, a positive or affirmative vote.
A black marbles signified nay, a negative vote. A box with a hole in the top, called a ballot box, was passed to each member who would vote on an issue by placing either a white or black marble into the box. These marbles were commonly made of hand-made glass, but also of ceramic; later in the s and forward, machine-made glass marbles were used. These marbles have two cut-off marks, one at each pole, easily identifying that it was made from a glass cane; have an opaque base, usually of white glass but sometimes of a pastel color.
Some of these marbles are out-of-round. These marbles have two cut-off marks, one at each pole, easily identifying that it was made from a glass cane; its base glass is translucent, or partly transparent, comes in a wide variety of colors and has thin stripes of colored glass upon its surface, running from pole to pole. These marbles have two cut-off marks, one at each pole, easily identifying that it was made from a glass cane; its base glass is transparent, comes in a wide variety of colors and has thin stripes of colored glass upon its surface, running from pole to pole.
The player who values the marbles in a game of chance. In the early years of the hobby many collectors were under mistaken impression these were manufactured in Rockingham potteries in Bennington, Vermont because they used the same colors on their products; thus the name. These marbles were made in huge numbers in both Germany and in Akron, Ohio. Identifiable features on these marbles are small round imperfections in the glaze, called eyes. In the manufacture of glazed stoneware marbles, when they come out of the kiln they are stuck together by the glaze and must be broken apart.
This leaves a diagnostic mark in she shape of a small circle of discolored glaze at the points where the marbles touched each other. These were commonly called crockies , or crockery marbles in the historic record. A glass marbleworks located Barberton, Ohio, near Akron; operating from to ; owned and operated by J. BARIO : noun.
A toy marble made from barium; hence the name. BEAD : noun. A cheap marble; a term used in Wisconsin. He was a prolific author and illustrator. Illustrated a number of books for Mark Twain including Yankee at the Court of King Arthur , Tom Sawyer Abroad and American Claimant ; wrote a large number of books and articles for boys on outdoors activities, woodcrafts and sports, including The Outdoor Handy Book originally published in and in continuous publication to the present.
This is the definitive work on playing marbles in the United States and still among the best in publication today. Beard spent his formative years in Painesville, Ohio, near Akron and the rest of his childhood in Cincinnati, Ohio where he played a lot of marbles. The marbles in the center were called ducks. The taw marble with which we shot described a slight curve through the air, skillfully and forcefully striking the duck. New York, , p BELL : verb. To pick up the marbles and run, not with intention of keeping them.
Perhaps from "to pick up everything and run when the school bell rings. Known as the " Marble King ", Mr. Berry Pink was involved with selling and marketing toy marbles from the 's to s. He started a marble company St. The company specializes in manufacturing marbles for the board game industry and the only manufacturer in the USA still making Cats-Eye marbles.
BIF F : verb. To hit or strike a marble with the taw, a term used in New England. A large marble ring, usually over ten feet in diameter. A marble game using a ring from 6 to 8 feet in diameter with 13 to 17 agates at the exact center in the form of a cross.
Players lag for first play, knuckle down tight and shoot from outside the ring attempting to knock agates out, thus winning them. Upon knocking out an agate, the shooter remains in the ring or pays to get out. If a shooter is knocked out of the ring, its owner is out of the game; the game as played in Massachusetts and Wisconsin. Also, Big Ring is one of the games that evolved into the game called Ringer.
A player knocking a target marble out of the ring, and the shooter remains in the ring gets to shoots again. However, if the player fails to knock a target marble out of the ring and their shooter comes to rest inside the ring, it becomes poison , must stay in the ring and it becomes a target for the opponents. If a poison shooter is knocked from the ring, its owner in some versions of the game is killed or out of the game.
Of particular interest in the above description is the unique rule or opportunity for the owner of the poison shooter to pay to get out. In certain cases, it might be to the advantage of the player with a poison shooter, depending upon the skill level of the opposition, to give each of other players a marble for the right to remove his poison shooter from the ring, instead of risking his shooter being knocked out of the ring and the player being killed and tossed out of the game.
Tern as used in Orange County, CA. Shooters usually made of obsidian or black agate. Heavy, extremely rare and prized. See Snowflake Obsidian. A term for a specific type of hand-made glass marble made in Germany, called Snowflake marbles in the US historic record, Glimmers in the German historic record and Micas by collectors; a transparent marble containing such large amount of mica flakes it almost prevents one from seeing through the transparent glass; the mica sometimes swirls inside the clear glass in a twisting pattern giving the impressions of heavy snowfall and high winds, thus the name blizzard.
BOB : verb. To toss a Tom-troller a marble larger than an alley as in the game of Bob-on-the-line. A large marble; also called a Tom-troller in some localities. One who bobs, see bobbing. That is the bobber must strike the marble aimed at before it reaches the ground. A glass toy marble factory located in Cairo, West Virginia. Founded in upon the purchase of The Heaton Agate Company ; manufactured West Virginia swirls, cats eyes, game board marbles and industrial marbles.
Founder of the C. Bogard Company of Cairo, West Virginia in In removed to Reno, Ohio in to form Jabo, Inc.
A type of shot made by a player; shooting into the air, above the ring surface so the shooter marble falls down, hopefully, on the targeted marble. This occurs when a player drops a marble, picks it up instantly, and shoots from where it fell. BOOLS : noun. Also; lag at the bools. See bowl. BOSS : noun. A large playing marble, of either stone or iron. A game of marbles in which two boys alternately shoot at their taws, usually called bounces in this game. Probably from buss, to kiss, i.
Also known as boss and span : the boss, or taw, is pitched or tossed out and the other boss has to span the distance in order to hit the first one. See Games , Boss Out. A marble game played with a large ring; a player keeps the marbles shot out of the ring; a term used in Oklahoma. A type of Boston in which the marbles are plumped ; the term used in Washington. A large toy marble being upwards of one inch 25 mm in diameter, to large to hold and shoot in the traditional American style, but used in many different types of games that require no shooting skills, instead being tossed, bowled or pitched towards a target; as used in the games of Droppies and Chasies; see Games.
In countries where children hold and shoot their marbles in the cunny-thumb , sling or flicking styles, 25 mm one inch marbles are called shooters. In the United States and Western Europe, a marble this size is too large to hold and shoot in the traditional style and marbles this large are not called or used as shooters. The bags of marbles sold today at all major retail outlets in the United States contain a 25 mm marble, are foreign-made, and cannot be used as shooters in most traditional games played in the United States.
The glass monstrosity was unknown then. Origin unknown. Partridge derives the word from bonce, schoolboy's slang for head; possibly related to bounce. A large marble. A game played with large marbles, ; but it existed earlier, as noted by John P. Stilwell, who writes of the game as played in the 's. Also as boncer. His adversary then shoots at it, and so on in rotation until one or other wins it, by striking the marble the number of times agreed upon.
A marble game where players drop a boulder from eye level onto a group of marbles in the center of a small ring; the object, trying to knock the most marbles out the ring Also called Eye Drops, Bounce About, Droppsies, Droppers and Droppings. See Games, Bounce Eye. A marble game, see Bounce Eye. BOWL S : noun. Originally a Scottish game played with bowls , or large marbles. A popular British game played in the 19 th century. Antique Bowls are highly collectable. Also verb. To roll a marble towards a target, as used in lagging. A special marble, usually large, used to roll towards the beginning line in order to determine the order of shooting.
A players term referring to one who plays the game of Bowls. A bowler made of crystal or similar material; a term used in Wisconsin. BOWLS : noun. BRICK : noun. Also called an immie or imitation agate in the historic record. An American Cornelian Marble that has a certain amount of green glass within the body of the marble.
Unit 6: Practice Problem Sets
This green is not a separate color added during the manufacturing process to make the marble; it is the result of the reduction process denying oxygen to the furnace not being totally completed while melting the glass batch. If the oxygen reduction process was not used, the formula for the batch would produce a green glass, not a reddish color. This marble is more desirable to collectors that a regular cornelian.
It is a combination of cornelian and clear glass. These marbles are extremely rare, extremely desirable and among the most expensive machine-made marbles in existence. An American Cornelian Marble ; due to a partially incomplete reduction process see Green Brick what appears to be black glass is actually a very dark green glass.
This marble is more desirable to collectors that a regular cornelian; but not as rare or expensive as a Green Brick. In a patent was filed called a Toy Marble Rake, which was used in the game of Bridgeboard. USPO , Some times called a marble board. Variations called, Arches, Archboard. See Marbles Rake. Headquartered at The Greyhound Pub , in Tinsley Green, Sussex, England; ably and beneficently governed by Sam Fox for many years, this organization is responsible for keeping the ancient tradition of Marbles Day alive in the United Kingdom.
The games played under their authority involve mostly adults through various clubs and pubs. These offices are also put to good use encouraging marbles; also though contacts and travel with others internationally. When the City of Akron purchased the local water company, Brown offered to provide ceramic marbles to use in the proposed filtration unit.
This experiment was a success so Brown offered his marbles to other water companies. Producing marbles for industrial purposes was at that time a novel idea and proved to be the future of marble-making.
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A clay marble. Dyke yesterday was the first "brownies" or "commas" so far as known ever turned out for the trade in this country. Helen Dewey. Small pockets of air, usually spherical in shape, captured inside glass marbles, usually a flaw from a manufacturing point of view; often seen in figure marbles ; in some cases gives a certain fascination to a clear glass marble. BUCK : verb. To bounce a marble against a wall in an attempt to hit other marbles placed in a line below it; term used in Wisconsin.
BULK : verb. To shoot a marble from the starting line; term used in BULL : noun. A large ring in the shape of a circle for playing marbles also called a bull ring. These marbles have two distinguishing and identifiable features; a slight ridge around the equator of the marble and a cut-mark showing where the excess glass was removed. CASSIDY This author is suggesting a variation upon the poison shooter rule in the game of keeps , which states, if an opponents shooter is knocked from the ring, all the opponents winnings are turned over to the player knocking out the shooter.
But in this version of the game, the player with an offending poison shooter being knocked out gets off easy with only losing one marble.
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And, in some of the more ruthless games of keeps , a player could lose his prized shooter, if it became poison and was knocked from the ring. Also, one in a series of similar games that evolved in into the game called Ringer , see Games , Bull Ring. Also a term used to describe the circle drawn on the ground in which the game is played.
The name of a marble, usually a natural agate marble and sometimes also China marbles with painted rings. On Chinas, the hand-painted bullseye was a popular design feature and three types of bullseyes are common; A. This is a desirable design for a shooter marble as the player can easily see the direction of spin. Also the name used for natural agate marbles where the stripes appear as circles of different colors ending in a single dot in the center.
Bullseye agate were among the most popular of all shooters marbles during the later years of the 19 th and first 75 years of the 20 th centuries in the United States. These are not made today. See Agate. BUMBO : noun. A marble game; where players to roll or shoot their marbles into a series of holes in the ground; in some neighborhoods the loser was forced to let the others players take shots at his knuckles.
A variation of the game Knucks. It is similar to the game of Bungums and to the modern game of marbles golf. To win at marbles in Missouri. Also, noun. A complete loss. BURN : verb. To disrupt a game by illegal interference. The "crockery" never had the splashes of white that distinguished the "burned agate" of New York, nor the green of the "moss agate" of the same place.
Both of the latter were unknown to the Western boys twenty-five years ago. Probably from game of dice. The act of breathing or blowing on a marble in order to obtain certain advantages. Also — i nterjection. Call of - Fen burnings, or no burnings - the counter cry to burnings. BURNS : interjection. A call by a player which allows him to roll his marble again after his shooter has hit some object that deflects from the desired direction. It entitles him to shoot again. As used in play of marble games, to press into the earth a poison shooter , by stepping on it, giving it some protection from it being knocked out of the ring by their opponent.
A glass marble with greenish internal markings; a term used in Wisconsin. A marble company located in Huntington Park, California Los Angles area ; they ground Mexican alabaster a stone into marbles by hand; operated from the mid to late s. A measuring tool used to accurately measure a marble. Due to the relative slight imperfections in the spherical body, at these exacting levels of measurement, a collector might spend a long time taking numerous measurements until they can find the widest spot on the marble.
Among collectors, size is one of the criteria relating to the financial value of a toy marble. A small manufacturer of glass marbles; founded by Oris Hanlon in Cairo, West Virginia; doing business from the mids to earlys. Their marbles are commonly called West Virginia Swirls. This Akron headquartered company produced the first totally automated marbles among the most beautiful ever made in Cambridge in These marbles have two cut-off marks, one at each pole, easily identifying that it was made from a cane. Sometimes these marbles are called swirls , or German swirls.
They are subdivided by the type of core inside the marble, i. Once the decorated canes are produced by glass-masters, lower skilled workers can turn out numerous marbles from the canes at cottage industry production facilities. Prized early glassies. The Spanish word for marbles in Latin America; the word comes from the sounds marbles make when they hit each other. Abbreviation of kinicker, kinick. A ceramic company located in Canton, Ohio near Akron and doing business during the first half of the 20 th century; manufactured a wide variety of products out of porcelain, including china marbles.
The name of a red-colored, hand-gathered, onyx marble made by The Akro Agate Company in the s; original boxes containing these marbles have a label showing the name was used by the company and was not simply a name adopted by players, as was normally the case. CARNE : noun. Abbreviation of Carnelian, the term used in Wisconsin. An old fashion abbreviation of carnelian, the term used in Wisconsin. A marble made of carnelian or similar material.
A very popular shooter marble that all the boys wanted, but was so expensive few could afford them. Also, a named glass toy marble made by The Akro Agate Company. See American Cornelian Marble. For a period between the s and late s these, multi-colored and sometimes beautiful marbles were among the most popular toy marbles made. They are still made today, though no longer multi-colored or beautiful, their uniformity of design and identical appearance make them undesirable for playing games For Keeps. They are the most common toy marbles sold in the world.
Ceramic means made of clay; where the most popular of all toy marbles made and sold in the USA from the s to Hundreds of billions were made and sold during that time.
There are four main types of ceramic marbles; common clay, stoneware, vitrified stoneware and porcelain. First manufactured in the US in by Samuel C. Ceramic marbles are probably the oldest toys made. Previous to these were imported to the United States in large numbers, primarily from Germany and were among the only marbles available in the USA.
A named marble; red colored, hand-gathered onyx marble made by The Peltier Glass Company of Illinois in the s. A type of fibrous quartz, agate, used to make toy marbles in the Idar-Oberstien area of Germany beginning in, production peaked in the s Carskadden. However, they were still being made for a short time after WWII. This is the stone that Bulls-Eye Agates were made from and until the post WWII area these were the most expensive and most coveted marbles by all boys. They were last sold in commercial quantities in the USA in the early s and then disappeared entirely from the American market.
The name of a marble; not used today and is more often seen in historic records of the United Kingdom than the United States. In the United States it is often seen in marble glossaries describing an unglazed clay marble, made of white clay, porcelain china, a light colored limestone or gypsum. School children called them chalkies because they looked and felted something like a stick of chalk that teachers used on black boards, but were not so soft.
Also, spelled Chalky. A marble made of chalk, a term used in Ohio around A marbleworks located in Pennsboro, West Virginia, started in the marble business in the late s. They primarily manufactured cheap clearies, industrial marbles, puries and game marbles for Chinese Checkers. In later years they made more interesting multi-colored that are commonly referred to as West Virginia swirls by collectors. A call that allows the player to change shooters. A rule used in American marble tournaments. The players may change shooters only at the beginning of a game. The shooter used during the lag must be the same shooter used during the rest of the game.
The penalty for changing shooters during the game will be forfeiture of all the marbles knocked out in that turn. A glassworkers term describing a specific amount of molten glass required to manufacture an item, a marble; also called a gather , or gob. Too large to be shot comfortably with the fingers; therefore tossed or dropped on objective marbles.
A marble game; Chase Ups being a regional variation of the name as used in Akron, Ohio; most often played while walking to and from school, it is a traveling game requiring little skill, as the player do not knuckle down or shoot the marble but toss, roll or bowl. Sometimes the game is played for Keeps, where if your marble is hit you must give your opponent a marble. Same as Followings.
A cheap marble; the term used in Wisconsin. A term found in the historic record of the glass industry to describe the chemical knowledge required to batch or to mix a formula for colored glass to make marbles. See J. A marble made of china ware, often with rings painted in different colors. The term was also used in Massachusetts, Minnesota and Ohio around The name given to a marble made of porcelain, can be glazed, unglazed, painted or dyed. A very popular type of marble first made in Europe; Germany exported large numbers to the United States; sometimes highly decorated, with strips and designs or pictures with detailed images.
The highly decorated varieties are rare and valuable. Matthew Lang of Akron, Ohio, invented an injection molding system to make them for his company, The East End Marble Company , Akron, Ohio, later he licensed his patent to other Akron area marbleworks in exchange for royalties. Marbles made of porcelain are among the hardest and most difficult marbles to break or crack during play.
Un-polished China Marbles , meaning un-glazed , make some of the very best shooter marbles, because their slight texture gives players a firm grip, better control, aim and backspin. Also called allies, chalkies, and plaisters. These marbles are known for their fine designs; beautifully detailed and colorful painted brushwork; commonly decorated with sets of very fine, parallel lines in varied widths and colors; motifs include pinwheels, bulls-eyes and flowers; some of them quite elaborate and realistic. Design are no longer fine and elaborate, but sometimes almost sloppy in application of the paints; motifs include helixes, spirials and some bulls-eye paterns.
Even cheaper imitation chinas come into the market at this time; these are unglazed pipe-clays, kaolin, white-bodied earthenware. Common colors are green, orange and black. These later marbles were likely called chalkies and plasters by the child players of the game. Designs with helix and spirals are more common in this period.
Imitation chinas were introduced; these were made of cheaper white earthenware and are glazed. These are industrial ceramic balls produced by the billions for industry; chemical, oil and gas, etc. A board game that uses marbles; introduced in the United States during the late s.
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The boards used in this game are usually highly decorated, most often with oriental designs and bright colors, many printed upon sheet metal, also can be made of wood or cardboard; 60 puries or solid opaque marbles are used as game pieces, 10 marbles of six different colors. A cat eye marble in which the design did not open out into four blades in the manufacturing process but remains a single wisp of color in the center of the marble. A porcelain marble, possibly baby slag for a china marble. CHIP : noun.
A marble, usually glass, in a chipped condition; the term used in Ohio around This company had no relation to The M. This company made and sold some of the most beautiful glass toy marbles ever made. His first job at 19, was working at the B. Goodrich Company where his sister Katherine also worked as a clerk. In he worked for the Union Rubber Company as a bookkeeper.
From until his passing in he worked for The M. In a warrant was issued against him for reckless driving and chasing a fire truck. Charles adopted a young girl from North Carolina, a daughter Jacqueline. He is buried at the family plot in Glendale Cemetery. Born in Copenhagen, Denmark and died in in Akron, Ohio. Christensen Company ; invented first practical steel ball bearing machine US Patent Numbers , and , in ; invented first machine to manufacture glass balls, or marbles, US Patent Number , in ; invented the modern marble auger helically grooved cylinder marble-forming machine, but the design was stolen by Horace C.
Christensen with the invention of the Hill machine in a court case called The Akro Agate Company vs. The Peltier Glass Company. Martin was married in to Jennie D. Levi, who gave him four children; Helen, Charles, Katherine and Jessie. Martin died of a stroke in and is buried in the family plot at Glendale Cemetery in Akron, Ohio. The M. Christensen marbleworks is today the oldest still standing toy factory in the United States. CHUCK : noun. A shooter or taw that remains in the ring after being rolled towards the marbles in the ring; see fat [also called a poison shooter.
A marble, taw. A game of marbles for two players. The area or ring for the game of chuck. The game of Chucks , its object, rules and strategies are unknown at this time. A variation of chuck used around A marble game played with a small ring; all marbles must be shot with two knuckles on the ground to prevent fudging. CLAM : noun. Another name for marbles. These marbles have two cut-off marks, one at each pole, easily identifying that it was made from a glass cane; have an opaque base, usually of white or black glass, with thin stripes of colored glass upon its surface, running from pole to pole and the stripes are evenly spaced.
A toy marbles made of ceramic materials, can be plain, dyed, painted or glazed. Also called clays, clayeys, clayies. See Commies , Ceramic Marbles. Claiming clearance gives a player the right to remove the debris. Also, a term used at American marble tournaments and in the Rules of Ringer. In tournament play, a contestant must ask the referee for clearance and if the referee agrees, the referee will remove the obstruction, not the contestant. A name for a glass marble made of any single color transparent glass.
These were first made as furniture casters in the United States by J. Leighton and beginning in as industrial marbles made by The M. They were not sold to toy stores until the s when a few children obtained samples, their playmates went wild for them and a keen marketing agent saw the potential of selling cheap industrial marbles as higher priced toy marbles.
These are the most inexpensive of all marbles made. The vast majority of glass marbles made since the s are clearies and intended for industrial purposes. Also see Purie, Crystal. Also clearies as a variation of c learance. A German word; name for toy marbles; the name comes from the sound marbles make when they hit each other. Perhaps a variant of kicks. CLIP : noun. The act of hitting a marble. To strike or hit a marble. Ordinary target marbles. CLOSE : noun. A marble game played against a wall; the winner is the player who gets his marble closest to the object; game as played in Wisconsin.
They have flecks of colored on the surface and some say it looks like colored clouds floating across the surface of a marble. A ceramic marble; same as Jasper; term used in the historic record, found in US sales catalogs before Carskadden 2. COB : noun.
- Prompts to Help Students Reflect on Learning.
- Scatter: Chimera: The Beginning.
- Reflections on Teaching: From Surviving to Thriving;
- Teaching Tu Fu on the Night Shift;
- Permission Granted (Swinging Short Stories Book 4);
- New Revelations: Second Sight Book Two.
A glass bottle used most often in Europe during the 19 th century and having an ingenious shape to its neck with a pocket that holds a glass marble often a bullet-mold marble. The purpose of the marble is to act as a stopper to keep the beverage inside the glass bottle. These bottles were often smashed by young boys in order to free the glass marble so it could be used for games. Glass marbles, particularly the creamy ones. A widely used slang term for common clay marble s in the historic record.
Also, sometimes used to describe non-descript glass marbles, industrial marbles, or the common modern cats-eyes that are uniform and identical in appearance making them undesirable as an ante in games played For Keeps. Common clay marbles were also called commies, combos, commas, commy, commons, commoney, commony, clayeys, clayies, crockies, dabs, dabbers, dibs, doughies, doggie, kimmie, predab, stookie, tooser, etc. Clay marbles are likely the oldest toys made in world history and are found in the archeological record of almost all ancient civilizations. These marbles were first manufactured in the United States by Samuel C.
Dyke in ; US Patent Number, , All the commies made in the United States were made in area of Akron, Ohio from to Commies can be dyed, painted different colors or plain showing the color of the clay used. In , these were the very first mass-produced toys and their introduction radically changed the American childhood experience.
They were the first toys that all children could afford to buy with their own money. One penny could buy upwards of 30 commies. Trillions of commies were made and sold in the United States, probably more than all other types of toy marbles combined up to the present time. The object, rules and strategies of this game are unknown. Reflection was a time to describe what students saw in their own work that changed, needed to change, or might need to be described so another person might understand its meaning. Figure The teachers then summarized key statements that students made about their work when asked the question "What would I change to make my work better?
I would use what I know to show more in the picture. I would add what is missing. I would be more careful. Students in 3rd and 4th grade made comments like these: I would correct. I would proofread. I would pay attention to conventions. I would extend more. I would stay to the subject. Students' Stages of Reflection Kindergarten Describes what is drawn. Focuses on drawing. Comments on realism.
Shows interest what student really loves. Mentions use of color. Mentions use of letters. Pays attention to what letters spell. Wants papers to have a neat appearance. Talks about what was liked in drawing. Focuses on colors. Shows development of an idea. Relates to content of story how student feels about the content of what was written.
Starts to write by self. Teachers used these phrases to describe 3rd and 4th grade students' writing as the teachers reflected upon it: Uses humor. Talks about genre or type of writing. Attends to style uses dialogue. Describes well enough for a reader to picture what was written.
Focuses on script. Focuses on description. Offers information. Is interesting. Works hard. Is exciting. Attends to the reader. Is clear. Does not drag writing out. Uses descriptive words. Through this experience, the teachers realized that the questions they asked might limit students' responses. They reminded themselves that the purpose of reflection is threefold: To help students become more aware of their writing—what makes writing work and what does not.
To help students take more responsibility for their writing—to know that writing must be understood by an audience and to learn how to anticipate a reader's response through self-evaluation. To see growth in writing over the school year and to be able to talk about that growth with students' parents. Teachers emphasized to students that the purpose of reflection was not to develop a carefully crafted piece of writing, but to develop the capacity for metacognition. Sentence stems can stimulate reflections. Use them in conferences where reflection can be modeled , or put them on a sheet for students who choose writing to jump-start their reflections.
Here are examples of possible sentence stems: I selected this piece of writing because … What really surprised me about this piece of writing was … When I look at my other pieces of writing, this piece is different because … What makes this piece of writing strong is my use of … Here is one example from my writing to show you what I mean. What I want to really work on to make my writing better for a reader is …. Students may prefer simply to describe what is going on in the writing in their own way. When students set their goals, they will use their reflections as a basis for directing their learning journey.
Students might collect work throughout the year as part of a portfolio process. Every quarter they can review the work in their collection folders and choose one or two pieces to enter into their portfolio. When they make those choices, they can take the opportunity to reflect on the reasons for their choices and to set goals for their next quarter's work. The ultimate intent of teaching reflection is to get students into the habit of reflecting on their own actions and constructing meaning from those experiences. When they develop the Habits of Mind related to reflection, they will hear both an internal and an external voice of reflection.
The internal voice of reflection is self-knowledge. Self-knowledge is difficult to describe in detail, but we can define it as both what and how we are thinking. Self-knowledge includes ways of thinking that may not be visible to us consciously. Given our culture, students have difficulty realizing that they need to engage in "self-talk. Send themselves a letter of advice, reminding themselves of what to look out for the next time they do something.
Interview themselves. Make a list of connections they see between their work and others' work. Include peers' work along with work that has been studied in the classroom. Record the steps they go through to solve a problem. Guide them to comment on how useful those steps were. Students hear an external voice of reflection in others' comments, suggestions, assessments, evaluations, and feedback. External sharing of reflections is important because this kind of reflection multiplies the learning for each individual. As students review the learning events that have taken place, they give their learning new meaning.
The opportunity to share often validates a student's internal conversation. Here are suggestions for helping students develop the capacity for sharing their reflections: Sit in a circle. Ask each person to share one reflection on the day's activities. Organize small-group reflections in which students share their thoughts.
Then ask a reporter to present those thoughts to the whole class. Invite students to share problem-solving strategies. Ask them to focus on how many different ways they can effectively solve a problem. Ask students to share at least one example in which they observed their group using the Habits of Mind. During these classroom experiences, teachers have an opportunity to model the Habits of Mind themselves. They can show evidence of good listening skills, probe for clarity and understanding, ask thoughtful questions, and share metacognitive thinking.
Through experience and continuous modeling, the class begins to learn how to use the Habits of Mind in reflective conversations, which strengthens the transfer to the internal voice of reflection. Many teachers document reflective conversations as a way of assessing progress with the Habits of Mind. For example, as mentioned in Chapter 11, some teachers create a notebook tabbed with each student's name.
They also keep sticky labels close at hand. When a student makes a significant comment that shows evidence of using a Habit of Mind, the teacher jots down the key words from the comment on a label and sticks the label on the tabbed page for that student. This record provides a rich source of information for a conference or a student report.
You might also consider reading student journals and noting how student reflections are developing. Keep a record for each student with notes about whether the student has moved from superficial to in-depth reflections. Indicators of in-depth reflections include making specific reference to the learning event, providing examples and elaboration, making connections to other learning, and discussing modifications based on insights from this experience.
Developing the Habits of Mind related to continuous growth and improvement requires the capacity to be self-reflective. As students reflect on their learning, they gain important assessment information about how they perceive the efficacy of their thinking. Many of us grow up thinking of mistakes as bad, viewing errors as evidence of fundamental incapacity. This negative thinking pattern can create a self-fulfilling prophecy, which undermines the learning process.
To maximize our learning it is essential to ask: "How can we get the most from every mistake we make? Feuerstein, R.